Law No 290 governs the disclosure of criminal records in Romania. The criminal records of all Romanian citizens are kept in a Central Criminal Records database by the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police. Police stations gather and keep the records of conviction status of individuals born in Romania, and it is their responsibility to keep these records up-to-date. This type of criminal record disclosure is named the Criminal Records Certificate. These Certificates contain personal information including full name, unique identification number, date and place of birth, most recent address, name of parents, and the details of the committed offence, rehabilitation and extradition information.
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Candidates who are applying for jobs that require financial responsibility are often screened based on their credit scores and financial histories. Additionally, public records and professional listings compiled during background checks can help employers confirm a candidate’s work history and qualifications, making it easier to spot false information on a CV.
The legal system is complex. Free Public Arrest Records are broken down into specific categories. Driving, Theft, Assault, Arrest, Inmate, Immigration, Sex Offender Records are some examples. All of these are public records and are open to public access and review. Investigative work or background checks normally include criminal records in one way or another. Hence, it would be good for police work, neighborhood watch or perhaps for social background checks.
An arrest record appears on a person’s background report when the person’s been apprehended by law enforcement on suspicion of criminal activity. It’s important to note, however, an arrest record is different from a criminal record. The former indicates only that the person was apprehended by law enforcement, but does not indicate guilt. An arrest record can show the person was held for questioning, taken into custody, held for investigation, or charged and tried.
Sweden is one of the countries with the largest databases of criminal records, containing some of the oldest population statistics in the world. In the past, individuals were prohibited from retrieving information about themselves to prevent being forced by employers or landlords to hand over the information. Yet there have been two notable changes in Swedish regulation of criminal records. In 1989, access was given to employers with the implementation of the 'subject access' paragraph in Swedish criminal records legislation. In 2001, it became mandatory for employers to check criminal records of teachers and childcare workers before they were hired, given the seriousness of sex offences against children. Individuals' criminal history records are today more available to the public than ever before.
To obtain access to a criminal record, an individual must apply directly to the local county police station in person. If the application is approved, results are issued in the form of a Criminal Records Certificate by the Central Inspectorate of the Romanian Police. Only the individual person is allowed to apply for their own record; however, a third-party individual may submit an application only if they have been authorised power of attorney. Judgements are able to be removed from an individual's criminal record if the legislation decriminalising the act for which the person has been sentenced is passed, in the event of amnesty or court rehabilitation, and for imprisonment of up to 3 years after 20 years from the date of the final decision.
The prison system in the United States holds inmates who have committed felony crimes under state laws and violated the constitution. People who have committed less serious offenses get a different form of punishment in accordance to the crime they committed, such as community work, probation or restitution. Felony offenders go to prison, and as of today, there are over 2.2 million prisoners in the United States.
In the United States, criminal records may be expunged, though laws vary by state. Many types of offenses may be expunged, ranging from parking fines to felonies. In general, once sealed or expunged, all records of an arrest and/or subsequent court case are removed from the public record, and the individual may legally deny or fail to acknowledge ever having been arrested for or charged with any crime which has been expunged.
A bankruptcy is a legal procedure where an individual or business seeks legal protection against the debts they have incurred. People file bankruptcy when their debt is so high they are incapable of paying it according to their creditors' terms. A bankruptcy is a serious mark on a person’s background report, but it’s not necessarily a red flag, as a high percentage of bankruptcies filed by individuals are the result of medical bills.
There is a centralised criminal record system, there is only one centralised database where the final criminal conviction issued by a Slovak criminal court is registered. This database is in electronic form and is maintained a unit within the General Prosecutors office of the Slovak Republic. The relevant legislation for this is governed by the Act on Criminal Records. As of 2008 there was a proposed bill that these criminal records could only be accessed by request to the General Prosecutors office when the person in question was up for a position which required a clean criminal record. Certain criminal records are not accessible at any time for instance the criminal record/record details of the President of the Republic of Slovakia are not available to anyone during his/her time in office. The criminal records and persona details of everyone held by the General Prosecutors office are lifelong, and continue to be updated throughout their life, every time they move address/change name etc.
There is no record of dismissed cases or verdicts of not guilty. To access their own criminal record, a person can seek it from their local police authority or send a written request to the Federal Public Service Justice. In terms of public access to criminal records, the following persons and judicial and administrative bodies may be able to gain access to records through the Federal Public Service Justice.
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