In Denmark, child sex abuse information is contained in two registers, the National Patient Register and the Criminal Register. The National Patient Register contains all hospital contacts including inpatient, outpatient and emergency department contacts. The Danish National Criminal Register of child sex abuse contains data relating to cases reported to the Danish police. Any sexual relationship with an individual below the age of 15 is prohibited by law as the Danish age of sexual consent is 15. Cases involving child sexual abuse are classified into three different categories according to the type of the offence involved. These groups include incest, sexual offences (physical or attempted physical sexual assault) and indecent exposure.[38]
The database that holds data about the criminal records of Estonian individuals is known as The Punishment Register, available for access through the Internet. It is owned and maintained by the Estonian Centre of Registers and Information Systems. Those records that are valid are made completely public. Some misdemeanour cases with the main punishment being less than 200 Euros, and cases involving minors are not published by The Punishment Register.[39]
Removal of Offences from the Record Judgements against an individual are not published on a Bulletin 3 certificate once the rehabilitation period has passed (depending on the severity of the conviction either three years for misdemeanours or five years for felony crimes, after the sentence was completed).[43] The records of the convictions will remain on the system but will not show on the request of a record. In the case of minors and children, these are removed from the Bulletin 3 once the individual concerned has reached 18 years and/or three years from the date the crime was committed.[43]
The name of the certificate of criminal record in Finland is titled: "Extract from the Criminal Record and Security Clearances". In Finland there is a variety of legislation governing the use and access to criminal records, some of which include The Penal Code of Finland 1889, The Criminal Records Act 1993, Act on Background Checks 2002, and the Personal Data Act 1999 chapter 6.[35]
What people typically think of as background checks are performed by specialty consumer reporting agencies. Much like your credit report, federal law entitles you to access this information once a year. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) recommends looking at your report before applying for a lease or insurance. Get a report if a job you’ve applied for asks for authorization so you can see if you’ve been a victim of identity theft. Looking at the report gives you the chance to spot errors and dispute them.
Free criminal records are all over the internet, but they are not created all equal. There are many sites that offer free information, including government and public offices and there are many sites too that offer fee-based checks. The general guideline is if time, convenience and professional quality is of the essence, go with the paid version. But before hopping onto any one of those, you may want to consider taking reference from some of the review sites. Their selections are generally accurate and well-substantiated. The rest is up to you.
Drug tests and credit checks for employment are highly controversial practices. According to the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, a project of the Utility Consumers' Action Network (UCAN): "While some people are not concerned about background investigations, others are uncomfortable with the idea of investigators poking around in their personal histories. In-depth checks could unearth information that is irrelevant, taken out of context, or just plain wrong. A further concern is that the report might include information that is illegal to use for hiring purposes or which comes from questionable sources."
The hiring of undocumented workers has become an issue for American businesses since the forming of the Department of Homeland Security and its Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) division. Many history making immigration raids[15] over the past two years have forced employers to consider including legal working status as part of their background screening process. All employers are required to keep government Form I-9 documents on all employees and some states mandate the use of the federal E-Verify program to research the working status of Social Security numbers. With increased concern for right-to-work issues, many outsourcing companies are sprouting in the marketplace to help automate and store Form I-9 documentation. Some jobs are only available to citizens who are residents of that country due to security concerns.
The full and detailed records of a one's criminal past can be available to a certain range of individuals and authorities, under the terms 'general use' and 'judicial use'. Under Article 575, general use dictates criminal records will and can be supplied for prospective members of the Bar, future notaries and chartered accountants as they are a prerequisite for registration.[46]
The FBI’s CJIS Division will authenticate U.S. Department of Justice Order 556-73 fingerprint search results for international requests by placing the FBI seal and signature of a Division official on the results, if requested at the time of submission. Documents prepared in this manner may then be sent to the U.S. Department of State Authentications Office by the requestor to be authenticated, if necessary. Please be sure to indicate the country in which the document is to be used. The FBI procedure became effective January 25, 2010, and applies only to documents finalized after that date. Requests to authenticate previously processed results will not be accepted.

Access to criminal history summary records maintained by the DOJ is restricted by law to legitimate law enforcement purposes and authorized applicant agencies. However, individuals have the right to request a copy of their own criminal history record from the Department to review for accuracy and completeness. Requests from third parties are not authorized and will not be processed.
Each state has its own laws when it comes to the consequences of having arrest records. For instance, if you were caught driving under the influence of alcohol, your license can be revoked. Some violent crimes result in a lifetime of probation and even losing the right to vote. Each state decides how its criminals will be affected and what rights can be revoked when a person commits a crime.
In Spain, conviction records are not 'expunged' as they are not erased completely but rather are 'cancelled' in a process known as 'cancelling a conviction record'. Therefore, judges will still be aware of the records but they disregarded as an aggravating factor when sentencing. Once conviction records are cancelled, the individual will possess a clean criminal record. Therefore, the record of their convictions will be sealed in the Central Criminal Records Registry and is likely made unavailable to the police.[91]
As a general rule, employers may not take adverse action against an applicant or employee (not hiring or terminating them), solely on the basis of results obtained through a database search. Database searches, as opposed to source records searches (search of actual county courthouse records), are notoriously inaccurate, contain incomplete or outdated information, and should only be used as an added safety net when conducting a background check. Failure by employers to follow FCRA guidelines can result in hefty penalties.[18]

The amount of information included on a background check depends to a large degree on the sensitivity of the reason for which it is conducted—e.g., somebody seeking employment at a minimum wage job would be subject to far fewer requirements than somebody applying to work for a law enforcement agency such as the FBI or jobs related to national security.

Background checks can cost between $40 and $50 each. Before you spend that much money, you’ll want to know if a service provides correct information. To gauge accuracy, we purchased reports for three people. We chose to look at multiple reports because much of the information comes from public records, and it can vary depending on the state your subject lives in.


Pre-employment screening refers to the process of investigating the backgrounds of potential employees and is commonly used to verify the accuracy of an applicant's claims as well as to discover any possible criminal history, workers compensation claims, or employer sanctions. For example, CBC News of Canada reported that fraud in the workplace cost Canadian Businesses over $3.2 Billion in 2011.[6]
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