In the event that the name and date of birth of the applicant matches any sexual offence record in the system, he/she is required to submit fingerprints to the RCMP for a physical confirmation.[17] Criminal record check is an integral part of the process for obtaining security clearances regardless of level of access. Some provinces may require high-risk professions to be screened to ensure public safety. For example, the BC Ministry of Justice requires all healthcare professionals, practicum students in healthcare, childcare facilities staff and volunteers, school and hospital staff regardless of position to undergo a CRC via the Criminal Records Review Program.[15] Many Canadian universities require a Criminal Records Check or other screening procedure (e.g. Child Abuse Registry Check, Vulnerable Sector Screen) as a condition of admission into its programs.[18][19]
Sweden is one of the countries with the largest databases of criminal records, containing some of the oldest population statistics in the world. In the past, individuals were prohibited from retrieving information about themselves to prevent being forced by employers or landlords to hand over the information.[93] Yet there have been two notable changes in Swedish regulation of criminal records. In 1989, access was given to employers with the implementation of the 'subject access' paragraph in Swedish criminal records legislation. In 2001, it became mandatory for employers to check criminal records of teachers and childcare workers before they were hired, given the seriousness of sex offences against children.[93] Individuals' criminal history records are today more available to the public than ever before.
In 2017, the Insurance Information Institute reported that over 16.7 million Americans were victims of identity fraud. That's about 4 percent of the population. Adding to the concerns of the safety of your personal information is the dramatic rate of data breaches in 2018. According to Business Insider’s list of the 21 biggest data breaches of 2018, over 2.5 billion accounts containing sensitive information were exposed to hackers just last year. Basically, the chances your personal information is already on the dark web is high.

Download and print the fingerprint card and take it to a law enforcement agency to be fingerprinted. The agency may prefer to use a fingerprint card on standard stock. You may use the fingerprint card provided by the printing agency as long as the fingerprint card is the FBI blue standard applicant fingerprint card and all information identified in the instructions, including the agency and official taking the fingerprints, has been entered on the fingerprint card. 
France has a sex offenders registry but unlike systems such as the United States, does not allow the public to access information regarding the information of cases and individuals who have been convicted of sex crimes, nor does France require the community to be notified of the presence of a sex offender in their neighbourhood as is obligatory in some other countries.[44]

Arrest Records are documents that contain an individual's arrest history. They are maintained by a number of government agencies at the federal, state, and local level, including local police departments, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and courts. Arrest Records contain an individual's arrests, arrest searches, inquiries, warrants, reports, logs, and mug shots.


The name of the certificate of criminal record in Finland is titled: "Extract from the Criminal Record and Security Clearances". In Finland there is a variety of legislation governing the use and access to criminal records, some of which include The Penal Code of Finland 1889, The Criminal Records Act 1993, Act on Background Checks 2002, and the Personal Data Act 1999 chapter 6.[35]

Criminal records in the United States contain records of arrests, criminal charges and the disposition of those charges. Criminal records are compiled and updated on local, state, and federal levels by government agencies, most often law enforcement agencies. Their primary purpose is to present a comprehensive criminal history for a specific individual.

Captain Denise Boudreaux serves as the supervisor for the Crime Analysis Division and for the Criminal/Traffic Records Division. She has been employed with the Sheriff's Office for the past 12 years. Prior to her current position she served as Administrative Assistant to the Commander at Kleinpeter Substation for seven years and then moved to Crime Analysis. The Criminal/Traffic Records Division enters document information on a data input computer terminal system to process and distribute reports to various law enforcement agencies and the general public according to office policy. In addition, the division checks, sorts, corrects forms, records and documents all files. The Crime Analysis Division is responsible for coding, counting and reporting UCR Statistics (Uniform Crime Reporting) to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations). UCR is the combination of all reporting agencies crime in the United States and will be published by the FBI yearly nationwide on the crime rates in the US.


Drug tests and credit checks for employment are highly controversial practices. According to the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, a project of the Utility Consumers' Action Network (UCAN): "While some people are not concerned about background investigations, others are uncomfortable with the idea of investigators poking around in their personal histories. In-depth checks could unearth information that is irrelevant, taken out of context, or just plain wrong. A further concern is that the report might include information that is illegal to use for hiring purposes or which comes from questionable sources."

The Swedish Criminal Records Registry is administered by the Swedish National Police Board which regulates access to criminal records and the use of criminal background checks by employers.[94] The registry contains information on those who have been sentenced in criminal courts or summarily imposed a fine, who have had a restraining order issued against them, or in whose cases prosecution had been abstained from. Generally, the information is kept for five years if the offence was punishable by fine, and ten years if it called for other sentences and sanctions. For those aged under 18 at the time the crime was committed, information is kept for only three or five years depending on the type of punishment.[93]
Law No 290 governs the disclosure of criminal records in Romania. The criminal records of all Romanian citizens are kept in a Central Criminal Records database by the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police. Police stations gather and keep the records of conviction status of individuals born in Romania, and it is their responsibility to keep these records up-to-date. This type of criminal record disclosure is named the Criminal Records Certificate. These Certificates contain personal information including full name, unique identification number, date and place of birth, most recent address, name of parents, and the details of the committed offence, rehabilitation and extradition information.

Go to your local police department where you reside or last resided in the United States, request that the police conduct a local or state criminal records search and provide you with a document reflecting that there is no history of a criminal record. Local police departments may require your personal appearance in order to conduct the search.  You should determine whether the country where you intend to use the records check requires that it be authenticated. For information on that process please see our authentications page.
As background check services turn into subscription services, the temptation for businesses to use the information for employment screening is extremely high. After all, anyone willing to pay around $30 to $50 per month can anonymously view unlimited background reports for as many applicants as they want. And there is little accountability or policing of how you use the information since it's all considered public record.

In Cyprus, criminal records are held by the Criminal Investigation Office of Cyprus Police[29] which forms part of the Republic of Cyprus Minister of Justice and Public Order. A Clear Criminal Record Certificate or existing Criminal Record can be requested by individuals through application to the Criminal Investigation Office. Applications can be made in person at the Central Police Station in Nicosia. Criminal records in Cyprus are maintained for life.

A background check is a process a person or company uses to verify that a person is who they claim to be, and provides an opportunity for someone to check a person’s criminal record, education, employment history, and other activities that happened in the past in order to confirm their validity. Whether you’re applying for a job, looking for a new apartment, or purchasing a firearm, you may have to undergo a background check.

A criminal database exists in Hungary which is allowed for under the 85th Act of 1999 on the criminal database and the official certificate of criminal record.[54] There are 5 different databases, the database of offenders, the database of those under coercive measures, database of those under criminal procedures, the database of fingerprint, palm prints and photographs and the database of DNA profiles.[55] Therefore, there is not only information recorded for those who have had a criminal sanction place against them, covered by the database of offenders, but also for those that are in pre-trial detention (database for those under coercive measures) and those who are suspected and accused of a crime (database for those under criminal procedures). The Central Office for Administrative and Electronic Public Services (COAEPS) of the Ministry of the Interior operates, managers and maintains the databases. Investigative authorities, public prosecutors offices and criminal courts all contribute to the databases.[56] The amount of time a person's information is held on these databases varies. For people imprisoned for an intentional offence, data will be removed 15 years after their release. If the offence was committed recklessly, then the data will be removed 5 years after release[55] The data is not publicly accessible, but a person can obtain the data held about themselves upon request.[56]


In the United States, criminal records may be expunged, though laws vary by state. Many types of offenses may be expunged, ranging from parking fines to felonies. In general, once sealed or expunged, all records of an arrest and/or subsequent court case are removed from the public record, and the individual may legally deny or fail to acknowledge ever having been arrested for or charged with any crime which has been expunged.
The information in the criminal record certificate includes prior offences, court citations and convictions. According to the severity of the committed crime and, more importantly, the received sentence, most entries are deleted after 5, 10, 15 or 20 years, respectively. The only sentences exempt from this rule are life imprisonment, preventive detention and commitment in a mental hospital.[48]
Background check reports from the services we reviewed aren’t always up-to-date or accurate. They can be good for confirming that the guy in an online dating profile is a real person and that your son’s soccer coach isn’t a felon, but because these services use web-scraping software to scour the internet for public information, the reports are not always accurate. This is especially true for finding info on people with common names or contextualizing a person’s associative relationships, for example.
U.S. citizens may be asked to present a “certificate of good conduct” or “lack of a criminal record” for a variety of reasons for use abroad, including adoption, school attendance, employment, etc. U.S. law enforcement authorities may not be familiar with such a procedure since it is not commonly requested in the United States. There are a variety of options available to U.S. citizens seeking to obtain proof of their lack of a criminal record.
Criminal records may be used for many purposes, including for background checks for purposes of employment, security clearance, adoption, immigration to the United States, and licensing. Criminal records may be useful for identifying suspects within the course of a criminal investigation. They may be used for enhanced sentencing in criminal prosecutions.
Many courts haven’t digitized their criminal records yet, which means they aren’t available online. If the information is not online, then background check services can’t use web scraping software to collect criminal records from the court. In these instances, some services have a court runner service where they send a person to the courthouse to physically pull the public files. This person is a court runner, trained on digging through files and retrieving information.
Generally speaking, the disclosure of a criminal record is only released to the individual who committed the offense and only when that individual has handed power of attorney to another or they are declared legally incompetent may another successfully apply to receive the disclosure. Perspective employers are not allowed access to disclosure at any time.[43] Applications must be made through the Casier Judiciare National (National Judicial Record, CJN) and are free of charge. Applications can be submitted online, via email, in person or by post of fax but are limited to the CJN. Criminal record certificates cannot be accessed through a French consulate or embassy at any time.
If it's very important that the background check be completely accurate, you may want to consider hiring a private investigator. However, most of the time, such background investigations are reserved for high-level pre-employment investigations, executive-level background checks and board-of-director confirmations, according to the Diligentia Group, a New York-based private investigation firm.
Checks are frequently conducted to confirm information found on an employment application or résumé/curriculum vitae. One study showed that half of all reference checks done on prospective employees differed between what the job applicant provided and what the source reported.[3] They may also be conducted as a way to further differentiate potential employees and pick the one the employer feels is best suited for the position. Employers have an obligation to make sure their work environment is safe for all employees and helps prevent other employment problems in the workplace.[4]
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